Apakah Maksud Hartanah Yang Ada KAVEAT ?

KAVEAT bermaksud sekatan atau halangan; adalah satu instrumen / alat / mekanisme yang disediakan oleh undang-undang untuk melindungi kepentingan seseorang ke atas urus niaga hartanah miliknya.

Terdapat 4 (empat) jenis kaveat berdasarkan Akta Kanun Tanah Negara 1965 ( Bab 19 Bahagian 1)

1. Kaveat Pendaftar – Kaveat yang didaftarkan oleh Pendaftar ke atas Dokumen Hakmilik. Menurut Seksyen 320, Antara tujuan kaveat jenis ini adalah untuk melindungi hak-hak pemilik tertentu dan juga berkaitan dengan hak-hak kerajaan. Ia juga untuk menghalang dari perbuatan / urusniaga fraud ataupun urus niaga yang tidak wajar.

2. Kaveat Persendirian- Kaveat yang dimasukkan oleh individu atau sebuah badan yang mempunyai kepentingan ke atas pemilikan hertanah tersebut. (Seksyen 322)

3. Kaveat Pemegang-Lien- Kaveat yang dimasukkan oleh seseorang individu atau sesebuah badan yang memegang dokumen Hakmilik Hartanah tersebut untuk tujuan tertentu contohnya sebagai cagaran untuk tujuan pinjaman bank. (Seksyen 330)

4. Kaveat Amanah- Kaveat ini dimasukkan oleh pendaftar ke atas mana-mana individu atau badan yang memegang amanah ke atas milikan tersebut (Seksyen 332)

Kesan Kaveat dari segi Undang-undang ?
Kesan dari segi undang-undang adalah apabila dimasukkan kaveat ke atas sesuatu hartanah itu, ia akan menghalang apa-apa urus niaga daripada berlaku seperti menjual, menggadai atau menyewakan hartanah tersebut.

Bagaimana Kaveat Terbatal?
Kaveat hanya akan terbatal apabila individu yang memasukkan kaveat itu menarik kembali kaveatnya ataupun apabila kaveat telah tamat tempoh. Contohnya kaveat persendirian hanya bertahan selama 6 (enam) tahun.

Siapa boleh lakukan Kaveat ?
Suami / isteri, bank, adik beradik ; boleh lakukan kaveat.

Mana-mana pihak yang merasakan dirinya ada kepentingan terhadap sesuatu hartanah; sama ada tanah atau bangunan, dia berhak untuk masukkan kaveat bagi melindungi hak dan kepentingannya.

Sebagai contoh, jika anda telah membayar sejumlah wang untuk membeli sesuatu hartanah tetapi urusan pindah milik belum dapat diselesaikan, maka anda berhak untuk memasukkan kaveat bagi menjaga kepentingan anda.

Perlu tunjukkan bukti yang anda telah membuat bayaran tertentu ke atas hartanah itu, iaitu dokumen sokongan.

Sekiranya satu urusan pusaka belum selesai, anda boleh melakukan kaveat untuk mengelakkan sebarang salah laku pecah amanah.

Suami isteri yang sedang dalam proses cerai juga boleh memasukkan kaveat bagi mengelakkan apa-apa transaksi, sementara mahkamah memutuskan pembahagian harta sepencarian.

Selain itu, pihak bank juga berhak memasukkan kaveat sekiranya mendapati peminjam mencagarkan harta mereka untuk mendapat pinjaman. Di situ terdapat kepentingan terhadap pihak yang mengkaveatkan hartanah itu.

Cara untuk Melakukan Kaveat
Cara untuk melakukan kaveat hanya perlu berurusan dengan pejabat tanah sahaja. Memandangkan hartanah yang dikaveatkan tidak boleh dibuat sebarang urus niaga (jika kaveat tidak tamat tempoh atau ditarik balik).

Oleh sebab itu, anda dinasihatkan membuat bakal pembeli hartanah semakan / carian persendirian di pejabat tanah sebelum berkeputusan untuk membeli hartanah itu.

Kalau mahu membeli hartanah lelong yang ada kaveat, ia agak merumitkan malah boleh tergadai balik rumah tersebut. Untuk withdraw kaveat mengambil masa 2 bulan apabila membeli rumah lelong, tempoh masa diberikan hanya 90 atau 120 hari.

Apabila sudah apply withdraw kaveat hampir 2 bulan, jadi tinggal berapa hari sahaja lagi lepas itu, kemudian jika dapat extension kira baik. Tetapi sekiranya tidak dapat, ianya akan dilelongkan balik.

Jikalau lihat pada surat “PERISYTIHARAN JUALAN LELONGAN” @ P.O.S pun ‘auctioneer’ nasihatkan untuk buat carian di pejabat tanah.

Jadi kena pastikan di geran tesebut ada tarikh masukkan kaveat dan Withdraw kaveat. Jikalau tiada kaveat, ia mesti ada yang daftar dan ada yang tarik balik, maka haruslah diperhatikan betul-betul.

Sekiranya transaksi anda terhalang disebabkan wujudnya kaveat, maka tuanpunya tanah atau mereka yang menentang kaveat itu perlu membawa perkara ini ke mahkamah dan mendapatkan perintah mahkamah untuk menyelesaikan isu kewujudan kaveat di atas hartanah tersebut.

Dalam hal ini, anda dinasihatkan untuk melantik peguam bagi mewakili anda.

Harus diingat peguam yang anda lantik untuk mengendalikan Perjanjian Jual Beli anda hanya dilantik untuk mengendalikan Perjanjian Jual Beli dan / atau untuk mengendalikan pindah milik hartanah yang anda beli.

Sekiranya ada masalah mengenai isu kaveat, anda boleh melantik peguam yang sama untuk mengendalikan isu kaveat ini (sekiranya peguam tersebut bersetuju) atau anda boleh melantik peguam lain.

Ini bermakna ada anda perlu menanggung kos guaman secara berasingan dalam hal ini. Kos guaman dalam hal ini adalah berbeza, bergantung kepada peguam / firma yang mengendalikan perkara ini.

Untuk mengelakkan sebarang masalah, adalah lebih baik jika anda mendapatkan “quotation” sebelum melantik peguam dalam hal ini.

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